There are two entire suktas (chapter) dedicated to Time (kālā) in Atharva Veda and it elaborates thy Supreme Father and his expansion, it clearly defines time as:
kālā (time) like a steed moves and encompasses everything, like the Sun it emits seven rays that cover all, it has thousands of axels, with creation itself is its wheels that move, its endless, ageless, immortal father, and first/primordial divine. All its causes become its children. The learned Sages/Rishi mount on this chariot. There is none stronger than this divine. In kālā cometh, Heavens and Earth and all realms and all creatures and the first Prajapathi, the present, past, and future rest on it. The mind arises in it, its the Prāṇa, and so are all forms and names (nama-rupa). The Sun, waters, winds, springs, rains, and heat, all arise in it. In it, all Yajna (karma) is inspired, and all years emerge.Atharva Veda 19.53-54
From the above arises 3 major questions, who is this immortal father who controls the past, present, and future? Who is the so-called “none stronger than this”? Who is this Prana, the mind, and from whom do all Heavens, Earth, beings, plants, Hiranyagarbha, and more arise? Let’s cover each and every aspect of this Sukta across Vedas and see that Vedic seers (Rishis) and their hymns are not just a random collection of poems but an intricate and interlinked ocean of wisdom.
Let’s start with explore two unique titles, first is trikāgnikālāya meaning the 3 fires which blaze at all times, are garhapatya, ahavaniya, and agnihotra. Time is always burning or is exhaustive, meaning it doesn’t stop, and trik+āgni+kālāya also depicts the three dimensions of time, which are the memory of the past, the present moment at hand, and the upcoming imaginative future. One might think of past and future as linear events and so are non-existential, but we will address this soon. The second title is kālāgnirudrāya (कालाग्निरुद्र) meaning fire that devours time, why because Rudra itself is TIME, hence the title Kālāya Namaha“कालाय नमः” TA10.18 (I bow to you oh time) and this finally landed in Svetasvatara Upaniṣhad wherein it says “अन्त:काले सञ्चुकोच”SU3.2 meaning He dissolves all beings into Him at end of time. One might consider both past and future to be non-existential, however, though non-accessible in this dimension, the same Upaniṣhad says “संयोगनिमित्तहेतुः त्रिकालात् परः अकलः अपि दृष्टः”SU6.5 meaning when one beheld in witness of Rudra, know He is the cause and the beginning of all causes; beyond the past, present and the future and he is not a part of it. Śrī Kṛṣṇa says to Yudhishthira in Mahābhāratam Anushasnika parvam 161.11 that Rudra is the past, the present, and the future, the exact statement was repeated by Rśi Vyāsa in Drona Parva 202. Maharśi Vaśiṣṭha’s Ramayana speaks extensively on the accessibility of time through dimensions beyond the current, and how Devi Sarasvatī takes her devotee across time to make her witness the past, present and future unfold at the same instance. This is why Maharśi Vaśiṣṭha says “only concepts like Shiva go beyond time”. We know that Rudra is the immortal one, He is the Prana, He is the Atman, and the inner self of all Devas and all beings, and this inner self is not bound by time. When it comes to power and strength then Rig Veda says that he possesses infinite-strength/omnipotent “ananta-śuṣmāḥ” RV1.64.10. The following Shiva Sankalpa Suktam of Rig Veda Baskala Khila and also present in the SukYajur Veda lays this out perfectly:
येनेदं भूतं भुवनं भविष्यत्परिगृहीतममृतेन सर्वम् । येन यज्ञस्तायते सप्तहोता तन्मे मनः शिवसंकल्पमस्तु ।। 4
यस्मिन्नृचः साम यजूँ॑षि यस्मिन्प्रतिष्ठिता रथनाभाविवाराः ।यस्मिँ॑श्चित्तँ सर्वमोतं प्रजानं तन्मे मनः शिवसंकल्पमस्तु ।।5
That (येनेदं) mental framework (मनः) is the one who experiences (परिगृहीत) the past (भू॒तं) the current/present (भुवनं) and the future (भविष्यत) is immortal (अमृतेन) all-knowing all-comprehending (सर्वम्) inner self (तन्म – येन) it is the inner fire and source (यज्ञ) it encompasses (स्ता॒यते) seven (सप्त) inner priests performing the real sacrifice (होता) may that be my auspicious resolve – many my resolve be of Shiva (शिवसंकल्पमस्तु) 4
In which (यस्मिन्) the Rig, Sama, and Yajur Veda (ऋग् साम यजूँ॑षि ) are established (प्रतिष्ठिता) like the spikes of a chariot wheel (रथ-नाभाविवाराः) so that knowledge is linked within all beings (सर्व-मोतं प्रजानं) in that inner self (तन्मे) may that be my auspicious resolve – many my resolve be of Shiva (शिवसंकल्पमस्तु) 5Rig Veda Baskala Shakha Khila Sukta 33 / Sukla Yajur Veda Kanva Shakha 33
प्राणानां ग्रन्थिरसि रुरो मा विशान्तकः। तेनान्नेनाप्यायस्व॥
Oh Rudra, you are the vital force (प्राणानां) that connects (ग्रन्थि) us all (मा) and you are the cure/an end (अन्तक) to all ill and poison (विश) that corrupts ~ Sri Rudram Namakam
कतमे रुद्रा इति दशेमे पुरुषे प्राणा आत्मैकादशस्ते॥
There (इति) are the types of Rudras (रुद्रा) that enter the Purusha/being (पुरुषे), ten are the Pranas that enter the 5 Karmindriyas and 5 Jnanindriyas and the 11th (एकादश) is the Atman/self/mind (आत्म) ~Br̥hadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad 3.9.4
मो वः किरिकेभ्यो देवाना हृदयभ्यो नमो विक्षीणकेभ्यो नमो॑ | विचिन्व॒त्केभ्यो नम आनिर्ह॒तेभ्यो नम आमीव॒त्केभ्यः|| 4.5.9
Salutations to the brilliant/dazzling (किरिके) indweller/heart (हृदयभ्यो) of all divinity (देवाना ), Salutations to the one who depletes/destroyer, Salutations to the dweller of holy, to Thoughtful/caring/intelligent (विचिन्व॒त्केभ्यो ), Salutations to the indestructible (आनि+र्हते+भ्यो) Kṛṣṇa Yajur Veda Taittirīya Saṃhitā 4.5.9
Rudra is the pure, spontaneous self-experience which is the one consciousness that dwells in all substances. It is the seed of all seeds, He is Prana, He is Atman, it is the essence of this world appearance, it is the greatest of actions. It is the cause of all causes and it is the essence in all beings. ~Yoga Vaśiṣṭham 6.1.36
Agni is the first cook in all homes AV19.55, and he is the fundamental element that digests our food and disintegrates our bodies at the end. The vocabulary used to describe Rudra and Agni is identical to the Mitra-Varuna duo. Agni is speech since He is a celestial priest (Hotr) who recites the hymns RV1.1.1, He is the transmitter of Sacrifice of Yajñá (medha) RV1.38,5.60, He holds the life and immortality in His hands RV7.4.6 as he is the deliverer of Soma to Devas. Then who is the lord or hymns, and the lord of Medha (sacrifice) and lord of Soma? It is Rudra, as He is gātha-patim and medha-patim RV1.43 and brahmānaspatim, the lord of knowledge (omniscient) RV1.38.13.
The Brahmāṇa of Taittirīya Śākhā’s Śatarudrāya states in its opening hymns that Agni is Rudra when the sacrifice is submitted into the Yajñá – meaning, based on the cause and event, Agni becomes Rudra SB184.108.40.206. Agni is the one who transmutes and causes change. Addressing Rudra Sri Aurobindo said, “He who both destroys and restructures Creation and propels Creation forward”. This is why the third eye of trayambaka-Rudra is called Agni. Śrī Rudram of the Taittirīya Saṃhitā, again and again, urges Rudra’s missiles not to hit us; the same Veda urges Agni – the heat of those missiles – not to harm us, but to be auspicious for us TS4.61 , this statement concurs with the story of Tripurasura in Mahābhāratam Karna Parva wherein Agni becomes the tip of Rudra’s missiles. The aspect of Rudra synonymous with weeping/roaring comes from the event in Taittirīya Saṃhitā 1.5.1 wherein all the knowledge and thoughts and riches were placed in Agni by the Devas in anticipation of a confrontation with the Asuras. Later, to recover their knowledge and thoughts, they harassed Agni – who wept and roared in anger and anguish. Hence, Agni becomes Rudra. As Agni restored this knowledge back to the Devas, Prajāpati, Manu and many cosmic phenomena like metals and seasons came into being. Further prosperity was bestowed upon all when the fire of Agni was re-established, hence Rudra is called “The Intelligence/Wise”AV11.2.17; similarly, Adityas are called “The Brilliance” KYV4.4.1,5.3.6. In this way, the concept of Rudra enters Agni and, at times, Agni becomes Rudra.
Time is measured for a single being in terms of their breaths, in Sanskrit, it’s Pranas. When it comes to the time as a whole and not per individual experience, time is measured as the rate at which Agni (fire) is combusting everything in creation. This might sound unacceptable, so let’s give it a try. Agni is everything, it burning in the Sun, it’s burning in Earth’s core, it’s burning and digesting food in our stomach, it’s the very Tajus that gives birth to beings, it burns the corps, and its what cooks our food. Every cell in our body has Agni. People asked Buddha after his Nirvana state, how does the creation look to you? He said, “everything and anything is burning ways, some fast and some slow”. Anything and everything is combusting, that is why the scientists say we are all carbon-based lifeforms, meaning our end product is always carbon. Hence the artifact dating method is called Carbon Dating. This is why Shiva has bhasma (carbon) on his forehead and His third eye is called Agni. Now compare this with Vedas and ask the question: “If the human life is measured in Prana and cosmic time is in Agni, how is Rudra related?” Brihadaranyaka Upanishad says Rudras are the 10 pranas and all Vedas say Agni is Rudra. As we have seen in the above title Rudra itself is TIME and AGNI.
Kalo Na Jaanaati tava jananam, Kalo Na Jaanaati tava samaapanam, Dhrishto maya tava ahaakaaraha Yogeshwara! Kaala Kaala!Isha Foundation
Time does not know your origin, Time does not know your end, I have beheld your glorious form O’ Lord of Yoga! The One beyond time!